Nghe An Province is located in the heart of North Central, spacious, east. With an area of 16,490.25 km2, the country’s largest; population of over 3 million people, the fourth largest in the country; the hometown of President Ho Chi Minh; fully converged transport links by road, rail, air, sea and inland waterways; abundant natural conditions, diversity as a little Vietnam … Nghe An has great potential and advantages to attract investments and a growing number of investors at home and abroad to explore investment opportunities investment and business in Nghe An.
Nghe An is located at latitude 180 33 ‘to 200 01’ latitude, longitude 1030 52 ‘to 1050 48’ east longitude, the center position in the North Central region. Nghe An Province, located in the heart of North Central region, bordering northern Thanh Hoa province, Ha Tinh province in the south, Democratic Republic of Lao People in the West with 419 kilometers of land border; east coast 82 km long. This position gives Nghe An important role in economic exchanges socio – North – South, construction and development of marine economy, external economic relations and expanding international cooperation. Nghe An is located on the highway route north – south (Highway 1A 91 km long pass through the districts of Quynh Luu, Dien Chau, Nghi Loc, Hung Nguyen, Hoang Mai town and Vinh city, Ho Chi Minh road run Parallel with 132 km long National Highway 1A passes through the Quynh Luu district, Nghia Dan, Tan Ky, Anh Son, Thanh Chuong and Thai Hoa town, Highway 15 west 149 km long running through the province); the highway running from east to west, connecting with Laos through the gate (Route 7 225 km long, 90 km long National Highway 46, Highway 48 on the 160 km long). Province railway North – South 94 km long pass.
Nghe An in the economic corridor East – West link My Myanmar – Thailand – Laos – Vietnam – East Sea along the Road 7 to Cua Lo town. Situated on the tourist route of national and international (Vietnam tours, tours Vinh – Plain of Jars – Luongprabang – Vientiane – Bangkok and back via Highway 7 and roads 8).
With such a position, Nghe An important role in economic exchanges, trade, tourism, transport of goods to the country and other countries in the region, especially in Laos, Thailand and China, as favorable conditions to call for investment in economic development – social.
Nghe An has a natural area is 16,490.25 km2. More than 80% of the area is located in the hills west of 10 districts and one town; The east is the area of the coastal plain and coastal areas include 7 districts, 2 towns and Vinh city. Divided according to the origin of the soils are as follows:
a – Aquatic land as: distribution concentrated mainly in the plain districts and coastal areas, including 5 team soil: sandy soil; alluvial soil, steep convergence; saline soils; alkaline soil salinity; soils and modified by the rice.
Occupies an important position among them 189,000 hectares of alluvial and sandy soils, is of great significance for agricultural production in the province. Here are the characteristics of two main categories:
– Land old sand seaside: 21 428 ha (concentrated in coastal areas), soil mechanical composition of crude, disjointed structure, low absorption capacity. Nutrients such as humus, nitrogen, phosphorus are poor, total high potassium, but potassium poor digestion, proper and was put into crops such as vegetables, groundnuts, beans, mulberry, ….
– Alluvial soil suitable for rice cultivation and color: Includes alluvium be paid annually, alluvial land without compensation, marshy waterlogged alluvium, alluvial soil older products Feralit. The group has about 163 202 ha area, including alluvium without compensation accounted for approximately 60% annually. Land is often fragmented, inclined and uneven, the process of continuous leaching both surface and depth. These soils focuses primarily in Delta, mostly used for rice cultivation (74,000 hectares). The strip of alluvial old river and alluvial soil have higher terrain usually maize and other cash crops day.
– In addition to two main soil type on soil also has coastal dunes and soils, however, small area and there are many limitations in agricultural production.
b – the local Soil: The soil is mainly concentrated in the mountains (74.4%) and includes the following soils:
*) Yellow red soil developed on clay schist (Fs)
The total area of 433 357 hectares, distributed on a large scale and in most concentrated in the districts of Tuong Duong, Con Cuong, Tan Ky, Anh Son, Thanh Chuong, Nghia Dan, Quy Hop.
Yellow red soil on clay in almost all types of terrain, but are concentrated in the lower mountains, steep slopes, thick soil layer. This is kind of hilly land quite well, especially on physical properties (water retention and good color retention), suitable for the development of industrial crops and fruit trees. The last time this type of land has been put to use to grow crops such as tea, orange, lemon, pineapple, pepper, … Area soils are also more and concentrate a large area, especially in Anh Son district, Thanh Chuong, Nghia Dan, Tan Ky, Quynh Luu. This is one of Nghe An advantage compared to many other places in the North to develop industrial crops and fruit trees.
*) Light yellow soil developed on sandstone and conglomerate (Fq)
The total area of 315 055 hectares, scattered under the narrow strip of land wedged between the schist strip extending from the Northwest – Southeast of the province over the mountainous and midland districts like Thanh Chuong, Anh Son, Tan Ky, Mutual Duong, Ky Son …. Due to the motor relatively lighter than clay schist soil should be light yellow soil on eroded sandstone often strong, relatively thin soil layer and place gravel and stones. Only some parts of the high mountainous terrain, vegetation cover is quite new with soil depth of 50-70 cm. Yellowish on the sandstone soil often nutrient poor, water holding capacity and poor adhesion, low clay component glue, color retention capacity, until now hardly used in agricultural production. upland capable of growing some crops but must have water protection regime and new erosion control best maintaining efficient use of land.
*) Red yellow soil on the acid rock development (Fa)
The total area of about 217 101 hectares, scattered in Anh Son, Con Cuong, Tuong Duong Quy Chau … Most yellow soil on acid rock red light mechanical composition, poor nutrition, eroded leaching strong, great acidity for afforestation.
*) Reddish brown soil on limestone (Fv)
The total area of about 34 064 hectares, scattered in the districts of Tan Ky, Nam Dan, Quy Hop … Reddish brown soil on limestone in lowland areas often have thicker floors; in the high mountains weathered limestone soil and leaching should strongly thinner soil. However, much of the limestone soil with soil depth is quite often over 50 cm, soil fertility in limestone fairly. Reddish brown soil on limestone suitable for growing many types of perennials such as oranges, tea, coffee, rubber … and with thick layers of soil, slope and fairly fertile. However, this area is not large limestone but fragmented distribution, can be combined with other land to create the crop area has high economic efficiency.
*) Red brown soil on basalt (Fk)
The total area of about 14 711 ha, distributed mainly in the economic area Phu Quy. This is the kind of good soil, well drained but poor water retention, with over 1 m thick layer, relatively flat terrain, less steep (slope less than 10o), very suitable for perennial crops. Most soils have been used in production, mainly rubber, coffee, oranges, … and for high economic efficiency.
*) Land Feralit yellow red mountains, alpine humus
These soils occupy nearly 20% of the soil. Despite high fertility, but the ability to develop agricultural production is limited due primarily focused on high mountains, steep terrain and fragmented, suitable for forestry production.
Located in Northeast massif, Nghe An has varied terrain, complex, heavily dissected by hills and rivers and streams. Overall, the terrain inclined from the Northwest – Southeast, with three distinct ecological zones: the mountains, midlands and coastal plain. In it, the mountains occupy 83% of the territory. Steep terrain, slopes greater than 8% accounted for nearly 80% of the natural area of the province, particularly on 38% of the land with a slope greater than 25%. Where Pulaileng highest peak (2.711m) in Ky Son district, lowest in the lowlands of the Quynh Luu, Dien Chau, Yen Thanh, Hoang Mai town where only 0.2 meters high above the sea ( Quynh Thanh, Quynh Luu). Topography on is a major obstacle to the development of road networks, especially transport links midland and mountainous regions, making it difficult to develop and protect forest land from being Erosion, caused flooding to many areas of the province. However, river systems steep, with 117 large waterfall, small is big potential can be exploited to develop hydropower and regulate water resources for production and people’s life.
Pu Mat National Forest
Sao Va Waterfall
Khe Kem Waterfall
4. The climate, hydrology:
Nghe An is located in the tropical monsoon with cold winters and divided into two seasons: summer is hot, humid, rainy and cold winters, with little rainfall.
a) Heat Mode:
The annual average temperature between 23 – 24 ° C, corresponding to the total heat in the 8.700o C. The temperature difference between the months of the year is quite high. The average temperature in the hottest months (June to July) is 33oC, high temperature 42,7oC absolute; The average temperature of the coldest month (in December last year to February next year) is 19oC, the absolute low temperatures – 0.5oC. The average hours of sunshine / year is 1500-1700 hours. Total temperature is 3.500oC – 4.000oC.
b) Rainfall regime:
Nghe An province has average rainfall compared to other provinces in the north. The average annual rainfall varies between 1200-2000 mm / year with 123-152 days of rain, high allocation gradually from north to south and from west to east and divided into two seasons:
– The dry season from November to April the following year, rainfall is only 15-20% of the annual rainfall, the driest month is January, 2; precipitation only reached 7-60 mm / month.
– The rainy season from May to October, rainfall concentrated occupy 80-85% of the annual rainfall, the wettest month is August, 9 precipitation from 220 – 540mm / month, number of rainy days 15-19 days / month, this season, often accompanied by a storm.
Value of the average relative humidity ranging from 80-90% air humidity also disparities between regions and seasons. The difference between the average monthly humidity wettest and driest months to 18-19%; areas with high humidity especially Hieu River upstream, the lowest humidity southern mountains (the district of Ky Son, Tuong Duong). Evaporation from 700-940 mm / year.
d) Wind regime:
Nghe An is influenced by two main types of wind: northeast monsoon and southwest wind phon.
– Northeast monsoon usually occurs in the winter from October to April the following year, each year about 30 northeast monsoon, bringing cold air, dry air makes decreased 5 – 10oC compared with average annual temperatures.
– Traditional Wind Southwest is a specific type of weather for the summer of the North Central Region. This type usually occurs in wind Nghe An in May to August each year, the average number of hot dry day each year is 20-70 days. Southwest winds cause dry climate, heat and drought, negative effects on production and daily life of people across the province.
e) other weather phenomena:
The province has a large area, there are enough types of terrain: mountains, midland and coastal plains, the climate varied Nghe An province, simultaneously with the spatial differentiation and variation over time. Besides these major factors, such as temperature, precipitation, wind, air humidity, it was a province of Nghe An affected by storms and tropical depressions. On average, each year there are 2-3 storm, often concentrated in August and 10 and even cause flooding.
Hoarfrost is only likely to occur in high mountainous areas and some midland terrain conditions and favorable soil conditions for the entry of cold air and heat loss by radiation of the ground strongly as Phu Quy area.
Overall, Nghe An in climates are more specific, clear differentiation in the whole territory and follow the seasons, creating conditions for developing crops. Somewhat harsh climate, especially storms and southwestern wind hindering sizeable overall development, especially agriculture.
Nghe An Province has seven river basins (with a separate door), but 6 of these is the short coastal river has a length of less than 50 km, the only river basins with 15 346 km2 whole length of 361 km. Low mountain terrain and hilly large proportion river network in the area is growing at an average density reaches 0.62 km / km2 but unevenly distributed throughout the region. Mountainous terrain slope large, fragmented, river network thrives on 1 km / km2, while for the midlands area so hilly terrain river network is underdeveloped, averaging below 0.5 km / km2. Yet many rivers, water is abundant but small river basins, steep terrain conditions so the utilization of river water resources for production and life difficulties.